Sir Robert Throgmorton Knight
- Born: 1510, Alcester, Warwickshire, England
- Marriage: Muriel Berkeley in 1527 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England
- Died: 12 Feb 1581, Coughton, Warwickshire, England at age 71
- Buried: Coughton, St. Peter Churchyard, Coughton, Warwickshire, England
Noted events in his life were:
• General History: England. Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, was a distinguished English Tudor courtier. Sir Robert was the eldest son and heir of Sir George Throckmorton(d.1552) by Katherine Vaux, daughter of Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden(d.1523). He had many brothers, the most notable being, in descending seniority: Sir Kenelm, Sir Clement Throckmorton MP, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton(1515-1571), Thomas, Sir John Throckmorton(1524-1580), Anthony and George. Robert Throckmorton may have trained at the Middle Temple, the inn attended by his father. At least three of his younger brothers and his own eldest son studied at Middle Temple, but as the heir to extensive estates he had little need to seek a career at court or in government. He was joined with his father in several stewardships from 1527 and was perhaps the servant of Robert Tyrwhitt, a distant relative by marriage of the Throckmortons, who in 1540 took an inventory of Cromwell's goods at Mortlake. He attended the reception of Anne of Cleves and with several of his brothers served in the French war of 1544. Three years later he was placed on the Warwickshire bench and in 1553 was appointed High Sheriff of Warwickshire. He was also elected as a knight of the shire (MP) for Warwickshire in 1553 and 1555. Three of his brothers also sat for Parliament, Nicholas as knight of the shire for Northamptonshire. Throckmorton's role in the succession crisis of 1553 is unknown, but his standing with Queen Mary is shown by her reputed answer to the news of Edward VI's death sent her by four of his brothers: 'If Robert had been there she durst have gaged her life and hazarded the hap'. In the autumn of 1553, Throckmorton was knighted and appointed constable of Warwick Castle. He continued to sit as MP for the shire until 1558, when he gave way to his eldest son, Thomas. His Catholicism explains his disappearance from the Commons in the new reign, although the most Catholic of his brothers, Anthony Throckmorton, was to sit in the Parliament of 1563. Judged an 'adversary of true religion' in 1564, Throckmorton remained active in Warwickshire until his refusal to subscribe to the Act of Uniformity led to his removal from the commission of the peace. In 1577, the Bishop of Worcester, John Whitgift, listed Throckmorton as a Catholic and reckoned him to be worth 1,000 marks a year in lands and £1,000 in goods. Sir Robert Throckmorton continued the family in the Catholic tradition. He married his children into the leading Catholic families, and in these generations the increased persecution of the Catholic spawned many relatives who became involved in plots against the throne. The sons of his daughters Anne and Muriel, were Robert Catesby and Francis Tresham, and a third daughter Mary was married to Edward Arden, who was also convicted of treason and executed for his part in a plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth in 1583. Mary kept an excellent record of a woman persecuted for recusancy, documenting the fines and searches made at Coughton Court, that is still in the family archives. A nephew, Francis Throckmorton, was executed in 1584 for acting as a go-between for Mary, Queen of Scots and the Spanish Ambassador in an attempt to invade England and place Mary on the throne. A niece Elizabeth; also known as Bess, the daughter of Sir Nicholas, and lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth, also got into trouble by secretly marrying Sir Walter Raleigh. He died on 12 February 1581, six days after making a will in which he styled himself of Weston Underwood, Buckinghamshire but asked to be buried at Coughton, where an alabaster and marble tomb was accordingly erected to his memory: there is a portrait at Coughton Court. He named as executors his eldest son Thomas and his sons-in-law Sir John Goodwin and Ralph Shelton, and as overseers another son-in-law Sir Thomas Tresham and his 'loving friend' Edmund Plowden. Sir Robert married twice. Firstly in about 1527 to Muriel Berkeley (d.1542), daughter of Sir Thomas Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley (1472-1533) by his first wife, Eleanor Constable (c. 1485 - 1527), daughter or Sir Marmaduke Constable. The issue of Robert and Muriel included: Catherine (c. 1532-12 Feb 1580), married Henry (Robert) Norwood circa 1547 and had issue. Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton (1533-13 Mar 1614), married c.1556 Mary Whorwood (c.1535-28 Apr 1607) and had issue five daughters and two sons including John Throckmorton Esq. (1580-1614/15), father of Robert Throckmorton, 1st Baronet(1599-1650).
Elizabeth (born c.1535), married Sir John Goodwin. No issue. Anne (c. 1541-16 Dec 1603), married Sir Ralph Sheldon and had issue. Mary (born c.1543), married Sir Edward Arden of Park Hall(1542-1583) and had a daughter, Catherine, who married Edward, 1st Baronet Devereux of Castle Bromwich, son of Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford. Secondly in about 1542 to Elizabeth Hussey(c.1510-23 Jan 1554), widow and formerly 3rd wife of Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury(d.1540), by whom she had been notoriously ill-treated, daughter of John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (1465-1537) by his second wife, Lady Anne Grey (c.1490-aft. 1537). The issue of Robert and Elizabeth comprised the following four daughters: Anne (d. after 1605), married Sir William Catesby (1547-1598) on 9 Jun 1566 at Ashby St. Ledgers, Northamptonshire and had issue including Robert Catesby. Elizabeth, married Sir Anthony Tyringham and had a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Robert, the 1st of Fisher baronets. Muriel (d.1615), married Sir Thomas Tresham and had issue. Temperance, married Sir Randal Brereton. No issue.
Robert married Muriel Berkeley, daughter of Thomas Maurice Berkeley and Eleanor Constable, in 1527 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. (Muriel Berkeley was born in 1518 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England, died in 1541 in Alcester, Warwickshire, England and was buried in Coughton, St. Peter Churchyard, Coughton, Warwickshire, England.)